How to use Mount and Umount command in Linux – Easy Guide 2021

Mount command in Linux is used to mount partitions, usb storage, cd-drives. These devices are mounted on to a mount point in order to use of Linux system. Once used the mounted device you need to unmount it, in order to prevent its further usage. Although mount automatically identifies file system type but in some cases you have to file system type.

In this guide we will cover how to use mount and unmount command to attaching or detaching various file systems / drives.

Use Mount and Umount command in Linux with Examples

Listing all mounted file systems using mount command

Running mount command with no other arguments displays all available mount points.

The information shown contains

device on directory type type [options]

This command shows list of all type of file system, but in case if you want to list only specific file system type, you can filter same using mount command with -t switch

Syntax

mount -t file_system_type

Example

mount -t ext4
Use Mount and Unmount command in Linux
mount -t

BELOW IS LIST OF TYPICALLY USED MOUNT OPTION

-a: Same as auto marks file system for automatic mounting.
async: allows asynchronous I/O operations on the file system being used.
auto: marks the file system as enabled to be mounted automatically. This command can also be executed by using option mount -a
defaults: this option is an alias for async,auto,dev,exec,nouser,rw,suid.
exec: allows execution of binary files present in file system.
user: Allows an user (other than root user) to mount and unmount the file system.
loop: Mounts an image (an .iso file, for example) as a loop device.
-l
: lists all file system mounted.
noexec: prevents the execution of executable files on the particular filesystem.
nouser: prevents any users (other than root) to mount and unmount the filesystem.
remount: mounts the filesystem again in case it is already mounted.
ro: mounts the filesystem as read only.
rw: mounts the file system with read and write capabilities.
-t: This option is usually followed by file system to be used by mount command.
-r: Similar to ro mounts file system as read-only.

Mounting a File System using mount command in Linux

For mounting a file system on to a mount point using the mount command use below command

Syntax

mount [OPTION…] Device_to_mount mount_location

The mount point will be attached and becomes the root directory of the mounted file system.

Example

To mount the /dev/sda1 file system to the /mnt/media directory you would use:

sudo mount /dev/sda1 /mnt/disk_1

During mounting of a device with file system such as ext4 or xfs the mount command will auto-detect the file system type, however in other cases you will have to specify.

use mount command in Linux
Use of mount and umount command in Fedora

Mounting using -t with mount command

Use switch -t to specify the file system type:

Syntax

mount -t file_system_type  Device_to_mount  mount_location 

To specify additional mount options , use the -o option:

Syntax

mount -o file_system_type  Device_to_mount  mount_location  

Multiple options can be provided as a comma-separated list with any spaces

Example

mount -o ro,loop test.iso /media/cdrom

Mounting a File System using /etc/fstab

fstab file control which file system are to be mounted at time of booting of system and location where these files are to be mounted. To mount a file system at time of boot you must make entry for specified file system in fstab file.

A typical entry in fstab has following fields

Device – mention for the device to which is to be mounted. Here you have to provide the device file or Label in this field.

Mount point – This contains information about location of directory where this file system is to be mounted.

Filesystem –  Here details for file system type (ext4, iso9660 etc) is given.

Mount options – Refer mount options above

Dump value – This can be either 0 or 1. Dump value refers to whether backup should be done for the file system or not. This method of backing up is not preferred method in modern systems, it can be left as 0.

Filesystem check order – This value determines the order in which filesystems are checked by “fsck” program during the boot process. If the value is “0”, fsck won’t check the filesystem. For older file systems ext2, NTFS or FAT16 system it should be 0.

A sample entry

/dev/sda5 /media/mydata ext4 defaults 0 0

This command will mount sda5 device at startup on location /media/mydata, with mount default option. There will be no Dump or backup taken f, also no File system check order is provided since no check is required.

Mounting CD ROM using mount command in Linux

Below command mount device CDROM available at /dev/cdrom at directory mnt/cdrom. Ensure directory cdrom exists at location mnt before executing command.

Syntax

mount -t iso9660 -o ro /dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom 

OR

mount -o ro /dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom

Mount ISO image file

Similar to mounting of USB firstly identify mount destination for ISO image file. For mounting an disk image file you need to use loop device.

Syntax

mount /path/to/image.iso /destination/of_mount -o loop

Example

mount /test/home/image.iso /mnt/iso -o loop

Mounting USB using mount command in Linux

To mount USB drive first identify mount destination for USB drive.

Syntax

mount /dev/sdxx  /mount_destination

Example

Assuming that USB is device location /dev/sdc1, use below command for mounting

mount /dev/sdc1 /mnt/usb

Unmount filesystem using umount command

To unmount file system you can simply specify path of mount, noteL umount command does not have ‘n’ between u and m i.e. Its umount not unmount.

Syntax

umount /mount_destination

Example

umount /mnt/usb

You may get error ‘target is busy‘ in case file system is being used. In this case you will either have to forcefully unmount or wait for accessing application to stop.

Unmount file system forcefully using umount command

Syntax

umount -f /mount_destination

Example

umount -f /mnt/usb

In case, some data is being written onto file system you may lose your data.

Lazy Unmount file system using umount command

As already mentioned umount file system forcefully may result in loss of data, in such case you may use lazy method of unmounting. In this case unmounting will start once file system is no longer busy.

Syntax

umount -l /mount_destination

Example

umount -l /mnt/usb